In this blog, we shall look into few different ways to rectify bad git commits. We shall simulate different situations that will give us a clear idea, what went wrong and how to correct it.Without any further delay, let’s begin!
Situation one : getting back the previous code
After doing certain changes, suddenly we realized that the new code is not fruitful. Therefore, we want to get back to the previous stage. As, we have not committed the new changes, we can easily get back by executing git checkout.
The command as follows:
$git checkout filename
Situation two, change commit message:
Lets say, we want to change the commit message.
$git commit --amend -m “this is the correct message”
Note: the above command will create a new commit. To check this, execute $git log. Each time we commit some changes, git creates new commit hash-id. This hash ID is unique for all the commits.
Situation three: Lets say we have forgotten to commit a file. In other words, that the file may be in modified area or in the staging area and we want to keep that in the last commit.
Execute the following command to achieve the above:
$git add newfile $git commit --amend
After executing the command above, it will open an editor, we have to just close it without making any changes. Press esc key, :q. Same as VIM/VI editor.To check, the new file has been added in the latest commit, execute
$git log --stat
Situation Four: git cherrypick:
Let’s say we have two branches master and feature. We have done two commits in the master branch and we have created a new branch(feature) from the second commit.
Hence, we have a feature branch with two commits. We made two more commits in the feature branch. The image below represents the git structure.
While working on more than one branch, sometimes we may make commits to the other branches. In this type of situation, we need to transfer those commits to the correct branch, this is where git cherry-pick comes into the picture.
In our case, by mistake, we have made two commits in the feature branch and we want to transfer those to the master branch.
Execute the following command to transfer the commits of the feature branch to the master branch.
Currently, we are in the feature branch.
Step1: Execute git log –oneline
copy the hashID to commit 1 of the feature branch.
Step2: Execute git checkout master
go to the master branch.
Step 3: Execute git cherry-pick hashID
paste the hash id to transfer the commit.
Remember, the transfer of commits should be sequential. In other words, commit 1 of the feature branch must be transferred first, then commit 2, and so on. Or else, git will create merge conflict.
In case that happens, execute git reset –merge.
Situation 5: git reset soft/mixed/hard :
git cherry-pick does not remove the commits from the source branch. In the case above, the commits in the feature branch still exist. Hence, those commits need to be removed.
For removing commits, we use git reset. There are three git resets, which are soft, mixed(this is the default), hard.
Reset soft: it takes us back to the point of the specified commit but it will keep the changes in the staging area.
Syntax: git reset –soft hashID
Reset mixed(default): unlike reset –soft, mixed reset keeps the changes the modified/working area.
Syntax: git reset hashID
Reset hard: it removes the changes of that commit. There will be nothing in the modified or in the staging area.
Syntax: git reset –hard hashID
Situation 6: getting back the deleted commits after reset hard
Make some commits in a branch
Reset hard one of the commit
Use reflog , it shows the commits in the order to which we referred.
Copy the hashID just before the git reset –hard
Execute git checkout hashID, this will create a new branch without a head.
$git branch backup
to get the branch list and the current branch name
Hence, by executing this command, the headless branch with be named as a backup branch
$git checkout master branch
Situation 7: git revert :
Let’s assume that we have done some changes and other people have pulled those commits.
Later on, we realized that those changes are wrong. Therefore, we want to rewrite those commits, so that in the future when other members will pull again, they will get the correct version.
In this scenario, we shall use git revert.
While using git revert, we can only revert the latest change. Or else, git will make a merge conflict.
How to use git revert:
1.Execute git log, to get the latest commit hashID. Copy that hash id.
- Execute, git revert hashID, this is open an editor. Just close it by :q
Upon executing the above command, if we check the code, those changes of the last commit are gone.
In this blog, we discussed way to rectify git bad commits. Remember, HashID of commit is like a milestone. It works as an reference point from which git can do different kinds of operations like revert, reset etc. Therefore, every operation related to git commit, hashIDs are very much important.
In the upcoming blogs, of git we shall discuss about a git stash command and how is can be helpful of a programmer.